1. 1989 Q6 P1
The diagram below represents a mammalian bone
(a) State the functions labelled K and L
(b) State the region of the body in which the bone is found
2. 1991 Q1 P1
State two ways in which skeletal muscle fibers are adapted to their functions
3. 1991 Q5 P1
The diagram below shows the arrangement of bones and muscles in a human arm
1. 1989 Q2 P1
State one structural and one functional difference between motor and sensory neurons.
2. 1990 Q15 P1
(a) How are the structures of the human eye adapted to their function?
1. 1989 Q13 P1
In an experiment, a variety of garden peas having a smooth seed coat was crossed with a variety with a wrinkled seed coat. All the seeds obtained in the f generation had a smooth seed coat. The f generation was selfed. The total number of f2 generation was 7324.
(a) Using appropriate letter symbols. Work out the genotype of the f1 generation
(b) From the information above, work out the following for the f2 generation
2. 1990 Q2 P1
The figure below is a structural diagram of a portion from anucleic acid stand.
1. 1989 Q7 P1
State the difference between Lamarckian and Darwinian theories of evolution.
2. 1991 Q17 P1
(a) What is meant by natural selection
(b) Describe the natural selection brings about adaptation of a species to its Environment
3. 1992 Q5 P1
Two populations of the same species of birds were separated over a long period of time by an ocean. Both populations initially fed on insects only. Later it was observed that one population fed entirely on fruits and seeds, although insects were available.
1. 1989 Q5 P1
The table below shows two mammalian hormones. For each hormone, state the site of production and its function in the body.
1. 1989 Q9 P1
Explain why several auxillary buds sprout when a terminal bud in a young tree is
2. 1990 Q11 P1
In an experiment, a group of students set up four glass jars as shown in the diagram
below. Jar A, B and C were maintained at 25 for 7 days, while jar D was maintained at
0 for the same period of time.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
1. 1989 Q9 P1
Explain why several auxiliary buds sprout when a terminal bud in a young tree is removed.
2. 1990 Q11 P1
In an experiment, a group of students set up four glass jars as shown in the diagram below.
1. 1989 Q4 P1
State how excessive use of pesticides may affect soil fertility
2. 1989 Q8 P1
The table below shows a list of five human diseases. Complete the table by naming the causative agent of each.
The first one has been completed for you.
EXCRETION AND HOMEOSTASIS
EXCRETION AND HOMEOSTASIS
1.1990 Q7 P1
(a) Explain why the body temperature of a healthy human being must rise up to 390C on a humid day.
(b) In an experiment a piece of brain was removed from a rat. It was found that the rat had large fluctuations of body temperature. Suggest the part of the brain that had been removed.
2. 1991 Q16 P1
(a) Explain how urea is formed in the human body
(b) Describe the path taken by urea from the organ where it is formed until it leaves the human body
3. 1992 Q4 P1
(a) Explain why sweat accumulates on a person’s skin in a hot humid environment.
(b) Name the specific part of the brain that triggers sweating
4. 1992 Q10 P1
Explain why some desert animals excrete uric acid rather than ammonia.
5. 1992 Q19 P1
Explain the part played by each of the following in homeostasis
(a) Insulin and Glucagon
(b) Antidiuretic hormone
6. 1993 Q2 P1
State the role of the following hormones in the body:
b. Antidiuretic hormone
7. 1993 Q10 P1
What osmoregulatory changes would take place in a marine amoeba if it was transferred to a fresh water environment?
8. 1994 Q2 P1
Name two components of blood that are not present in the glomerular filtrate.
9. 1994 Q3 P1
How would one find out from a sample of urine whether a person is suffering from diabetes mellitus?
10. 1995 Q17 P1
Describe how excretion takes place in
(i) Mammalian Kidneys
(ii) Green plants (5 marks)
11. 1996 Q3 P1
When is glycogen which is stored in the liver converted into glucose and released into the blood (1 mark)
12. 1996 Q21 P1
Explain how the mammalian skin is adapted to perform its functions (20 marks)
13. 1997 Q8 P1
A person was found to pass out large volumes of dilute urine frequently.
(a) Name the disease the person was suffering from
(b) Hormone that was deficient
14. 1997 Q15 P1
The equation below represent a metabolic that occurs in the mammalian liver
Amino acids →Organic compounds + urea
(a) Name the process.
(b) What is the importance of the process to the mammal?
(c) What is the source of amino acids in this process
(d) What is the difference between essential and nonessential amino acids?
15. 1999 Q11 P1
Give reasons for each of the following:
a) Constant body temperature is maintained in mammals.
b) Low blood sugar level is harmful to the body.
16. 2000 Q5 P1
State the importance of osmo-regulation in organisms
17. 2000 Q13 P1
The temperature of a person was taken before, during and after taking a cold bath. The results are shown in the graph below
(a) Explain why the temperature fell during bath
(b) What changes occurred in the skin that enabled the body temperature to return to normal?
18. 2001 Q6 P1
Adult elephants flap their ears twice as much as their calves in order to cool their bodies when it is hot. Explain.
19. 2001 Q11 P1
The diagram below represents a mammalian nephron
(a) Name the
(i) Structure labeled P
(ii) Portion of the nephron between point X and Y
(b) Name the process that takes place at point Q
(c) Name one substance present at point R but absent at point S in a healthy mammal
(d) The appearance of the substance you have mentioned in (c) above is a
symptom of a certain disease caused by a hormone deficiency. Name the
(e) State the structural modifications of nephrons found in the desert mammals
20. 2003 Q14 P1
a) Explain how marine fish regulate their osmotic pressure.
b) Explain the role of antidiuretic hormone when there is excess water in the human body.
21. Some students used a model to demonstrate the effect of sweating on human body temperature. Two boiling tubes A and B were filled with hot water. The temperature of water in the tubes was taken at the start of the experiment and then at 5 minutes interval.
The surface of tube A was continuously wiped with a piece of cotton wool soaked in methylated spirit. The results obtained are shown in the table below.
a) On the same axes, plot graphs of temperature of water in the tubes against time.
b) At what rate was the water – cooling in tube A?
c) Why was tube B included in the set up?
d) Account for the rate of cooling in tube A.
e) State two processes of heat loss in tube b.
f) What would be the expected results if tube A was insulated?
g) What would the insulation be comparable to in:
h) Name the structures in the human body that detect:
i) External temperature changes
ii) Internal temperature changes
22. 2004 Q18 P1
How is the mammalian skin adapted to its functions? (20 marks)
23. 2005 Q13 P1
The diagram below shows a section through the mammalian skin.
a) Name the parts labeled E, F and G. (3 marks)
b) State two functions in each case of substance secreted by the structures labelled.
(i) H (2 marks)
(ii) I (2 marks)
24. 2006 Q4 P1
a) Name the fluid that is produced by sebaceous glands. (1 mark)
b) What is the role of sweat in human skin? (2 marks)
25. 2006 Q7 P2
Describe how human kidney functions (20 marks)
26. 2007 Q14 P1
(a) What is the meaning of the terms
(i) Homeostatic (1 mark)
(ii) Osmoregulation? (1 mark)
(b) Name the hormones involved in regulating glucose level in blood (2 marks)
27. 2007 Q2 P2
(a) Explain what happens to excess amino- acids in the liver of humans (3 marks)
(b) Which portion of the human nephron are only found in the cortex? (3 marks)
(c)(i) What would happen if a person produced less antidiuretic hormone? (1 mark)
(ii) What term is given to the condition described in (c) (i) above (1 mark)
28. 2008 Q2 P1
State the importance of the following processes that take place in the nephrons of a human kidney
(a) Ultra filtration ( 1 mark)
(b) Selective reabsorption ( 1 mark)
29. 2008 Q11 P1
(a) What is homeostasis? (1 mark)
(b) Name three processes in the human body in which homeostasis is involved (3 marks)
30. 2009 Q17 P1
Explain why plants do not require specialized excretory organs (4 marks)
31. 2009 Q21 P1
Explain what happens in humans when concentration of glucose in the blood decreases below the normal level ( 4 marks)
32. 2009 Q8 P2
Describe the role of the liver in homeostasis in the human body (20 marks)
33. 2010 Q18 P1
Give two reasons why animals have specialized organ for excretion as compared to plants (2 marks)
34. 2010 Q19 P1
State the changes that occur in arterioles in the human skin during thermoregulation. (2 marks)
35. 2011 Q1 P1
Name two kidney diseases.(2 marks)
36.2011 Q25 P1
State one economic importance of each of the following plant excretory products.
37. 2011 Q7b P2
Explain how the human skin brings about cooling of the body on a hot day. (7 marks)
38. 2012 Q18, 19 P1
18. Why plants able to accumulate most of their waste products for long? (1 mark)
19. List four forms of diabetes mellitus. (4 marks)
39. 2012 Q2 P2
The diagram below illustrates the structure of the kidney nephron.
(a) Name the part labeled E. (1 mark)
(b) How the part is labeled F adapted to its function? (4 marks)
(c) State three physiological mechanisms of controlling the human body temperature during a cold day. (3 marks)
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kcse past papers
1. 1995 Q2 P1
Name the organelle that performs each of the following functions in a cell (2 marks)
a) Proteins synthesis____
b) Transport of cell secretions___
2. 1996 Q8 P1
State two functions of cell sap (2 marks)
3. 1997 Q1 P1
State the functions of the following cell organelles
a) Golgi apparatus
4. 1998 Q3 P1
Which organelle would be abundant in:
a) Skeletal muscle cell
b) Palisade cell
5. 2001 Q7 P1
Name the organelle in which protein synthesis takes place
6. 2004 Q7 P1
State the function of the organelles:
a) Lysosomes (1 marks)
b) Golgi apparatus (2 marks)
7. 2005 Q2 P1
The diagram below represents a cell.
a) Name the parts labelled X and Y (2 marks)
b) Suggest why the structures labelled X would be more on one side than the other. (1 mark)
8. 2006 Q1 P1
a) State the functions of cristae in mitochondria.
b) The diagram below represents a cell organelle.
i) Name the part labelled Y. (1 mark)
ii) State the functions of the part labelled X. (1 mark)
9. 2007 Q2 P1
a) What is the formula for calculating linear magnification of a specimen when using a hand lens?
b) Give a reason why staining is necessary when preparing specimens for observation under the microscope (1 mark)
10.2007 Q4 P1
State three functions of Golgi apparatus (3 marks)
11.2008 Q12 P1
State two functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (2 marks)
12.2009 Q3 P1
State the functions of the following parts of a light microscope (2 marks)
a) Objective lens _______
b) Diaphragm _______
13.2009 Q7 P1
State the function of the following cell organelles
a) Ribosome (1 mark)
b) Lysosomes (1 mark)
14.2009 Q15 P1
Name the type of movement that occurs within a plant cell (1 mark)
15.2009 Q26 P1
How are the mitochondria adapted to their functions? (2 marks)
16.2010 Q3 P1
State the function of:
a) Ribosomes (1 mark)
b) Lysosomes (1 mark)
17.2010 Q9 P1
State two ways in which chloroplasts are adapted to their functions. (2 marks)
18.2011 Q11 P1
State the functions of the following parts of a light microscope.
i) Fine adjustment knob.
ii) Stage (2 marks)
19.2011 Q15 P1
Give reasons for carrying out the following procedures when preparing temporary wet mounts of plant tissues.
a) Making thin plant sections (1 mark)
b) Adding water on the plant section. (1 mark)
c) Placing a cover slip over the plant section. (1 mark)
20.2012 Q3 P1
The figure below is a fine structure of a generalised animal cell as seen under an electron microscope.
a) Name the parts labelled A and B (2 marks)
b) How is the structure labelled B adapted to its functions (2 marks)
21.2012 Q12 P1
a) Name the part of a light microscope used to bring an image of a specimen into sharp focus. (1 mark)
b) Why is it recommended to keep the stage of the microscope dry? (1mark)
22.2012 Q27, 30 P1
27.What is the function of contractile vacuoles in amoeba? (1 mark)
30.Name the organelle that is involved in each of the following: (2 marks)
a) Manufacture of lipids
b) Formation of Lysosomes