International Relations refers to the cooperation or interaction between individuals or groups of nations of the world
Benefits of international relations
Ways in which nations relate internationally.
There are two types of international organizations;
Role played by International Governmental Organizations.
THE UNITED NATIONS
The UN was founded after world war Two as an organization of independent states with the following objectives;
Formation of the United Nations
The signing of the Allied declaration in London on 12th June 1941 marked the first step in the formation of the UN. On 14th August 1941, Franklin Delano Roosevelt of USA and Winston Churchill of Britain, meeting in USA, proposed a set of principles for international collaboration in maintaining peace and security. This was the Atlantic Charter. The charter pledged respect for human Freedom, Allowed all nations the freedom to choose the form of government they preferred and provided that no territory should change hands after war without consent of its people.
On 1st January 1942, representatives of Allied nations meeting in Washington signed the
‘Declaration by United Nations’ and proclaimed support for the Atlantic Charter This marked the first official use of the term ‘United Nations’ as suggested by President Roosevelt in reference to the 26 nations
The first Blueprint of the UN was prepared at a conference held at Dumbarton Oaks Estate, Washington from 21st September to 7th October 1944. Representatives of USSR, USA, UK and China agreed on the aims, structure and functions of a world organization. On 11th February 1945, the Yalta Conference held by US president Roosevelt, UK PM Churchill and Russian PM Stalin declared the resolve to establish an international organization to maintain peace and security.
On 25th April 1945, the United Nations Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, USA attended by delegates from 50 nations. It drew a 111-Article Charter which was adopted on 25th June 1945.
The UN began its official functions on 24th October 1945 after ratification of the charter by USSR, USA, Britain, China and France.
Organization of the UNO
Membership to the UN is open to all peace-loving nations that accept the obligations of the charter. By 1945, only 51 states had signed the charter. Kenya Joined on 16th December 1963. By April 2003 membership had grown to 191 states.
To achieve its aims, the UN spelt out in its charter the following principles;
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
This is the main deliberative organ of the UNO, but which cannot enforce action on members. It comprises all member states.
Functions of the UN General Assembly
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To help in its operation, the general assembly has the following committees;
The political and security committee, the special political committee, the economic and financial committee, the committee on social ,humanitarian and cultural issues, the trusteeship committee , the administration/budget committee and the legal affairs committee.
THE SECURITY COUNCIL
It has 15 members from 15 countries. Ten of these are non-permanent. It also has five permanent members namely china, France, USA, Russia and UK.
Its main function is to maintain world peace and security.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Its membership is 54. 18 are elected each year for a term of three years.
Its function is to coordinate the economic and social work of UN and its specialized agencies. E.g. in trade, status of women, Population, science and technology
It inherited the work of the Mandates Commission of the former League of Nations. It had responsibility over the territories under colonial rule-. - To promote social, economic, political and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories.
Consists of five permanent members and six additional ones appointed by the General Assembly
The head of the secretariat is the secretary general. It has its headquarters in New York. Its staff members come from 139 countries. Its work covers all areas outlined in the UN Charter.
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
It has its headquarters at Hague. It is the principal judicial body of the UN. It gives advisory opinions on legal questions. It has 15 judges.
These are separate specialized agencies which are autonomous organizations related to the UN by special agreements. (REF TO PAGE 49 OF EVOLVING WORLD)
Past Secretary Generals of the United Nations Organization since its inception
Achievements of the United Nations Organization
Problems facing the United Nations Organization in its operation