Origin of the African Union
On 9th September 1999, the Heads of State and Government met in Libya and made the Sirte Declaration calling for the establishment of an African Union and a pan-African parliament.
On 29th may 2000, the document for the formation of African Union and Pan-African Parliament was adopted by the joint sitting of legal experts and parliamentarians.
On 2nd June 2000, heads of state and government meeting in Lome, Togo adopted the Constitutive Act of the African Union drafted by the council of ministers.
The AU was born in 2002, at a Summit held in Durban, South Africa, where the first Assembly of Heads of State of African Union was convened.
Differences between the former Organization of African Unity and the present African Union
The AU Charter:
Effects of the end of Cold War on Africa
- Some African countries that were formerly socialist are in problems following collapse of USSR in 1990. E.g. Somalia, Ethiopia, Angola and Mozambique.
- The end of the cold war has led to the removal of financial aid and military support for some African countries. Military or food aid is no longer rushed to countries experiencing problems because there is no more superpower competition. E.g failure to prevent the Rwanda genocide and failure to assist in the Somali crisis and the current Al-shabaab crisis.
- There was emergence of new world political and economic order. The end of war has led to emergence of USA as a ‘world policeman’ over developing nations. The countries must act according to USA wishes or suffer lack of aid and receive harassment from superpowers.
- It has led to marginalization of Africa in international affairs.
- There are conditional ties for getting aid from the western powers. Besides, Africa no longer has a choice of donors who comprise mainly of western world countries.
NAM STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION
The country that hosts the summit holds office until the next summit. Non-aligned countries place the onus of an administrative structure on the country assuming the chair. The country is required to create or designate an entire section of the ministry of foreign affairs to deal specifically with the Non-Aligned Movement.
The chair’s ambassador in the United Nations essentially functions as the ‘minister of Non-Aligned Affairs’.
NAM has also created contact groups, task forces and committees to facilitate the chair’s responsibility as follows;
The Coordinating Bureau
Working Groups, Contact Groups, Task Forces and Committees
Non-Aligned security Caucus
Joint coordinating committee
Coordination of non-aligned countries in the UN centres.
Panel of economists
- Conference of Heads of State and Government. This is NAM’s highest decision-making authority and meets once every three years. It has two committees, one on political issues and another on economic and social issues. The summit is held at least one month before the regular session of the UN General Assembly. During the summit, there is a formal ceremony for handing over the chair.
- Ministerial conference. Its task is to review developments and implement decisions of the preceding summit and also discuss matters of urgency. The conference meets 18 months after the summit.
- Ministerial meeting in New York during a session of the UN General Assembly. This is a meeting of foreign ministers annually in New York at the beginning of the regular session of the UN Assembly. The purpose of the meeting is to deliberate on the items of the Agenda of the General Assembly that are of major importance to the movement.
- Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau. The main task is to prepare for the summits, and where necessary, to consider issues of major importance to the movement.
- Meeting of the Ministerial Committee on Methodology. The attendance is by all NAM members and its meetings are held by the decision of the summit or the ministerial conference. The meetings are chaired by the chair of NAM.
- Meeting of the standing ministerial committee on economic cooperation. These meetings are meant to strengthen south-south cooperation, reactivate the dialogue between the developing and developed countries and enhance the role of the UN General Assembly, in international cooperation for development. The meetings are held frequently upon recommendation of the coordinating Bureau.
- Ministerial Meetings in various fields of international cooperation. They discuss issues like agriculture, information and external debt.
- Extraordinary Meetings of the Coordinating Bureau. They address exceptional cases that call for urgent consideration.
- Meetings of the Working Groups, Task Forces, Contact Groups and Committees. The meetings are held as often as necessary.
The growth of NAM
- The first summit, Belgrade, 1961. The attendance was by 25 non-aligned countries who met at a time when world peace was threatened seriously by the looming nuclear war. The meeting’s objective was to prevent the outbreak of a nuclear war in the world.
- The second summit, Cairo, 1964. The summit of October 1964 was attended by 47 Nations and 10 observers. There were 28 representatives from Africa. The conference mainly focused on problems facing NAM countries due to colonial inheritance, policies of former colonial powers and the rivalry between the great powers..
- The third summit, Lusaka, 1970. The attendance was by 53 members the meeting resolved that time was ripe for declaration on peace, independence, cooperation and democratization. The members were out to fight colonialism and racism. The main resolution was the members’ determination to achieve economic emancipation.
- The Fourth Summit, Algiers, 1973. It was attended by 75 members, eight observers,three guest nations and 15 liberation movements. The meeting was an attempt to transform the existing system of economic and financial relations in a manner that would liberate developing countries from a subordinate role into an equal position with industrialized countries. The members developed an action programme in the interest of economic cooperation.
- The fifth Summit, Colombo, 1976. It was attended by 86 members, who focused on the liberation of Zimbabwe and Namibia, the abolition of apartheid in South Africa as a way of promoting world peace.
- The sixth Summit, Havana, 1979. The conference was attended by 93 members, 12 observers, 8 guest nations and seven new members. The meeting declared that imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, apartheid, racism, foreign aggression, expansion, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony, Great power bloc, Subjugation, dependency and pressures in international relations as enemies of non-alignment. The chairman of the summit was Fidel Castro who put forth his ideas that the socialist bloc is a natural ally of the movement.
- The seventh summit, New Delhi, 1983. It was attended by 96 members, 16 observers and 20 guest nations. The summit took place at a time when there was intense confrontation as the great powers continued to amass nuclear weapons. . Indra Gandhi appeared to be the moderate leader to host the conference and soften the impact of Cuban radicalism. The conference discussed peace, nuclear disarmament, development strategies for north-south Dialogue on a new world economic order, and the south-south cooperation for collective self-reliance.
- The eighth summit, Harare, 1986. It marked NAM’s silver Jubilee. The main concern was Namibia’s independence and apartheid in south Africa.. NAM emphasized its sanctions against the Pretoria (South Africa) regime. It drew an action plan to deal with the threat posed by South Africa. The summit came up with a special solidarity fund to help the frontline states.
- The Ninth summit, Belgrade, 1989.
- The tenth Summit, Jakarta, 1992.
- The eleventh Summit, Cartagena de Indias, 1995.
- The twelfth Summit, Durban 1998.
- The thirteenth Summit, Kuala Lumpar, 2003.
Performance of the Non-Aligned Movement
Reasons why NAM is still relevant
- NAM is the only forum that can articulate the voice of justice and sanity in the world in view of the unending Arms Race.
- NAM is the only forum through which the demand for a less unjust world economic order can be raised given the kind of hold the developed nations still have on developing nations.
- NAM remains the third world’s shield against the pressures of the superpower elephants that can easily trample on the grass of the lesser animals even after end of cold war.
- NAM can still play a role in addressing emerging world issues such as terrorism, environmental degradation, HIV/AIDS and racism.
Achievements of NAM
- It has helped speed up the attainment of freedom in states that were under colonial bondage.
- NAM has assisted its members in safeguarding their national security and territorial integrity.
- Non-aligned nations also worked to eliminate conflict between the superpowers. This helped in the promotion of peace and security for the non-aligned world. India for example played a role in solving the Korean War, the Suez crisis and Indo-Chinese conflict.
- NAM created a conducive environment for peace, justice, equality and international cooperation by contributing to the relaxation of international tension by keeping clear of the two military blocs, USA and USSR.
- The movement has strengthened African and Asian Countries diplomatically at a time when they lacked necessary physical strength. They were able to exert their voting power as Afro-Asian bloc to influence world affairs.
- NAM provided an international forum where members’ voices could be heard. It was able to work to dismantle apartheid by its two-third world community membership despite the Reagan administration’s opposition to sanctions against South Africa.
- The movement has given members freedom to put their national interests before those of the great power blocs.
- The NAM through the Cairo and Colombo Summits termed as World Disarmament conferences, played a key role in the disarmament process. The 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco, signed by 22 states, set up a weapon Free Zone in Latin America.
- The Non-aligned states have helped in international crisis management since they are not committed to any course of military action. For example during the 1961 Berlin crisis, Nehru of India and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana went to Moscow for a peace mission, while Achmad Sukarno of Indonesia and Modibo Keita of Mali went to Washington DC to try and create a conducive atmosphere for managing the crisis.
- NAM has worked towards creation of new international economic order. Members of the movement are able to trade with both the great power blocs. Membership to the Group of 77 in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is drawn from the non-aligned nations. The non-aligned nations were open to aid from both blocs and also ready to expand their trade with both sides of the ideological divide.
- The Solidarity fund established during the Harare Summit of 1986 cushioned the frontline states against the economic sanctions imposed on apartheid South Africa.
- NAM has worked to create the new scientific and technological order. The members have demanded a new scientific and technological order by favouring access to the most advanced technology and scientific research available as a means of bridging the technological gap between the developed countries and developing ones.
Factors which have undermined the activities of the Non-Aligned Movement
- Political instability is frequently experienced by some member states. For example, civil wars and military coups in DRC, the Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, interstate wars like in the case of Iran and Iraq. This has undermined their contribution to the movement.
- Economic ties between the third world countries and their colonial masters had made it difficult for the member states to pursue an independent line.
- Border disputes between neighboring member countries has weakened the course of the movement. E.g. between morocco and Algeria, North Korea and South Korea, Vietnam and Cambodia, Ethiopia and Somalia, Uganda and Tanzania etc.
- Economic backwardness of some of the member states has made it difficult for them to meet their obligation in the movement as national needs come first in view of the meager resources of some of the nations.
- Ideological differences between member states have undermined their co-operation. Its large size of 116 members by 2004 has frustrated its ideological coherence and organizational solidarity. Whereas some countries are inclined towards the west, others are inclined to the east.
- Membership to other organizations like AU, commonwealth and the French community, has made it difficult for some states to participate actively in the affairs of the movement.
- Breakup of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War has destabilized the movement. As power bloc rivalry subsided, NAM appeared to become irrelevant.
- Conflicting national interests. Individual national interests have failed to agree with the objectives of the movement.
- Personality differences between leaders of member states have undermined the movement. For example, several leaders rejected the radical views of Fidel Catron of Cuba.
- Differences unrelated to the principles of NAM have developed among members. For example at the Colombo Summit of 1978, several Arab states were keen to see Egypt expelled from the movement on grounds that she had signed a separate peace treaty with Israel. This was not an agreement with a superpower and therefore had nothing to do with NAM.
- NAM lacks a permanent Army or a permanent institutional framework or machinery that can enable it carry out its activities effectively. For example, it failed to persuade iraq and Iran to end the 8 year long war from 1980.
THE COLD WAR
It was so called because it was fought not with weapons, but with words, propaganda, military and financial aid to enemies of the opposing sides.
Although there was no actual physical confrontation, Cold War was characterized by a conflict of the most serious and deadly kind.
Causes of the Cold War.
- Ideological differences. There was deep-seated fear and mutual suspicion between USA and USSR over the spread of their ideologies–capitalism and communism. E.g The establishment of the Soviet Union through acquisition of satellite states was a measure to contain capitalism.
- Disagreement over the issue of disarmament. The use of atomic bomb on Japan by USA towards the end of World War II alarmed USSR. The two sides failed to agree on an arms reduction plan and continued to stockpile atomic bombs.
- Economic rivalry. In 1947, the USA President Harry S. Truman introduced the Marshal Plan, a scheme to assist western European countries that had been devastated by war. The USSR in turn formed Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), an economic cooperative plan for Eastern Europe. This further heightened the hostility between the west and the east.
- Formation of military alliances. In April 1949, the USA, western European countries and Canada formed a military alliance through the signing of the North Atlantic. Treaty in Washington D.C. (NATO). The formation of NATO ended USA’s isolationist policy. Russians responded by signing the Warsaw Pact, in May 1955, a military alliance of communist countries. These alliances fostered hostility between countries.
- The use of Russian veto powers in the UN. Russia used her veto powers to defeat UN proposals, which she accused of being pro-USA. The struggle by the two powers to dominate the UN increased tension between them.
- Disagreement over the future of Germany as a whole. Western allies wanted a strong Germany to assist in the economic prosperity of other nations. Russia was keen on a politically and economically weak Germany to safeguard against another invasion. NB- in 1961, the USSR built the Berlin Wall, thus dividing East Berlin from West Berlin.
- USA’s military advancement. By 1945, the USA was the only country that possessed atomic weapons. This created fear.
Benefits of international relations
- Enhance peace and security in the world the diplomatic policies of nations call for peaceful settlement of disputes, thus reducing war incidences.
- Promote understanding and unity. This done through Encouraging cultural exchange between nations.
- Help in getting collectives solutions to world problems. Problems of global concern like desertification, global warming, armament and environmental pollution, are dealt with collectively.
- Promote economic growth through trade. Due to good relations , there is expanded international trade which enables countries to acquire goods they don’t produce
- Developing countries get financial assistance. Developed nations have continued to
- provide financial and technical assistance to developing nations
Ways in which nations relate internationally.
- Economic relations. This is through trade and commercial activities among nations. For example, developed nations giving loans and grants to developing nations.
- Diplomatic relations. This is a peaceful means of relationship between nations in which there is exchange of Ambassadors or High Commissioners.
- Political relations. This involves cooperation between countries with similar political systems or ideologies. E.g. USA and Western Europe, in 1964, Tanganyika united with the island of Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanzania.
- Socio-cultural relations. This takes place in form of exchange and competition between dance troops, musicians, acrobats, sports teams, theatre groups etc, e.g. participation in Commonwealth Games.
- International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) for example UN, Commonwealth, NAM and African Union.( formed by two or more sovereign states).
- International Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) created by individuals or private organizations. E.g. International Red cross, Amnesty International and Transparency International.
Role played by International Governmental Organizations.
- The provide member states with a forum to consult and tackle problems of concern.
- They act as regulators in their fields to ensure the welfare of Humankind e.g World Health Organization (WHO) regulates health sector through immunization, vaccination and other prevention campaigns.
- They enhance peace and security through peace-keeping missions and response to disasters.
- They contribute to charity and facilitate equitable distribution of resources in the world. For example, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank advance loans to developing nations.
THE UNITED NATIONS
- To promote and maintain international peace and security and prevent the occurrence of another world war.
- To foster friendly relations among nations of the world.
- To promote respect for fundamental human rights and freedoms.
- To promote social progress and better living standards of the people.
- To protect the interests of minority groups such as women and children.
- To promote economic growth among member states who are working towards reconstructing the world economy that was destroyed by the World War 2.
- To replace the league of nations which had collapsed before the outbreak of world war 2
Formation of the United Nations
On 1st January 1942, representatives of Allied nations meeting in Washington signed the
‘Declaration by United Nations’ and proclaimed support for the Atlantic Charter This marked the first official use of the term ‘United Nations’ as suggested by President Roosevelt in reference to the 26 nations
The first Blueprint of the UN was prepared at a conference held at Dumbarton Oaks Estate, Washington from 21st September to 7th October 1944. Representatives of USSR, USA, UK and China agreed on the aims, structure and functions of a world organization. On 11th February 1945, the Yalta Conference held by US president Roosevelt, UK PM Churchill and Russian PM Stalin declared the resolve to establish an international organization to maintain peace and security.
On 25th April 1945, the United Nations Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, USA attended by delegates from 50 nations. It drew a 111-Article Charter which was adopted on 25th June 1945.
The UN began its official functions on 24th October 1945 after ratification of the charter by USSR, USA, Britain, China and France.
Organization of the UNO
To achieve its aims, the UN spelt out in its charter the following principles;
- It is based on the sovereign equality of all its members.
- All member states must fulfil, in good faith, their charter obligations.
- All member states must settle international disputes by peaceful means and without endangering peace, security and justice.
- They must refrain, in their international relations, from the threat or use of force against others.
- They must give the United Nations every assistance to any action it takes in accordance with the charte`r, and shall not assist states against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.
- The United Nations must ensure that states which are not members act in accordance with these principles insofar as necessary for maintenance of international peace and security.
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
Functions of the UN General Assembly
*****MAKE REFERENCE TO EVOLVING WORLD PAGE 44
To help in its operation, the general assembly has the following committees;
The political and security committee, the special political committee, the economic and financial committee, the committee on social ,humanitarian and cultural issues, the trusteeship committee , the administration/budget committee and the legal affairs committee.
THE SECURITY COUNCIL
Its main function is to maintain world peace and security.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Its function is to coordinate the economic and social work of UN and its specialized agencies. E.g. in trade, status of women, Population, science and technology
Consists of five permanent members and six additional ones appointed by the General Assembly
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
Past Secretary Generals of the United Nations Organization since its inception
- Trygve lie of Norway (1946-1953).
- Dag Hammarskjöld of Sweden (1953-1961)
- U Thant of Burma (1961-1971)
- Kurt Waldheim of Austria (1972-1982)
- Javier Perez de Cueller of Peru (1982-1991)
- Boutros Ghali Boutros. Of Egypt (1992-1996)
- Kofi Annan of Ghana (1997-2000)
- Ban Ki Moon.(2000 up to present)
Achievements of the United Nations Organization
- The organization has succeeded in keeping peace amid the threats of nuclear war and seemingly endless regional conflicts in the world. UNO has developed more than 35 peacekeeping missions and observer nations.
- The UN specialized agencies are engaged in a vast array of social work, affecting positively, every aspect of people’s lives around the world. E.g., child survival and development, environmental protection, medical research, agricultural development, education etc.
- The organization has helped in promoting democracy around the world. It has enabled people in more than 45 countries to participate in free and fair elections, e.g. in Namibia, Cambodia, El Salvador, Eritrea, Mozambique, South Africa etc.
- The UNO has promoted development of skills and potentials vital for all aspects of development. The UNDP, in close co-operation with over 170 member states and the UN agencies designs and implements projects for agriculture, industry, education and environment.
- It has helped in promotion of Human Rights. Since the adoption of the universal declaration of human rights in 1948, the UN has helped to enact more than 80 agreements on political, civil, economic, social and cultural rights.
- It has played a vital role in environmental protection. ‘The Earth Summit’, the UN
- Conference On Environment and Development held in Rio De Janeiro in 1992, resulted in treaties on biodiversity and climate change
- Promoting self-determination and independence. The organization has brought about independence of 80 countries that are now among its member states.
- Providing humanitarian aid to victims of conflicts. More than 30 million refugees fleeing war, famine or persecution have received aid from the UN high commission for refugees since 1951.
Problems facing the United Nations Organization in its operation
- National sovereignty. Many countries disregard the UNO resolutions in favour of their sovereignty.
- It is unable to stop aggressions and conflicts between individual countries when superpowers are involved.
- Lacks sufficient funds to carry out its work efficiently. E.g it has not always been able to send enough peacekeeping forces due to lack of sufficient funds.
- It lacks an effective machinery to affect its decisions. It also lacks a standing army to implement and effect its resolutions.
- The permanent members with veto powers often adopt policies that promote their own national interests at the expense of the collective interests of most countries in the world.
- Loyalty to other organizations. UNO members are also members of other organizations; the interests of these organizations are not in accord with those of the UNO.
- Ideological disputes among member states have hampered the work of UNO in promoting world peace. This was manifested in the cold war period.
- The arms race. The UNO has found it difficult to achieve world peace because of the arms race in different parts of the world. The arms race generates and sustains conflict rather than peace.
- Differences in economic development levels of member states militate against co-operation.
- The increased occurrence of natural disasters such as famine, floods and epidemics has created an unexpected demand for economic resources. This automatically the UN’s resources.
Origin and structure of Commonwealth of Nations
The idea to launch the association is traced back to 1839, with the publication of the Durham report.The modern commonwealth began in 1947 with the end of the British rule in India.
In 1949, India and Pakistan joined the commonwealth.
The commonwealth secretariat is based in London. It deals with day to day running of the organization and organizes meetings. The head of the commonwealth is the Queen/King of England. The Commonwealth has the Heads of State Summit which meets for a week every two years to discuss political and economic issues.
There are also the Ministerial meetings once after every three years to deal with different issues.
The commonwealth has specialized agencies dealing with various areas of concern.
Membership to commonwealth
- Britain and her Dominions of Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
- African Nations.
- Asian nations.
- Islands from the Caribbean, Pacific and Mediterranean.
Characteristics of commonwealth states
- Members of the commonwealth use English as a common language.
- Members maintain cultural ties. For instance, they participate in the commonwealth games every four years.
- Members co-operate in the field of education.
- Members recognize the queen of England as the head of commonwealth.
- Members have a common military tradition based on the British military system. They also promote military exchange programmes.
- Members share common democratic institutions from Britain such as parliamentary system of government.
- Members have adopted constitutions that are almost similar.
Objectives that led to the formation of the commonwealth nations
- To promote world peace and international understanding. Members are expected to abide by the UN Peace programmes.
- To promote development of poor member states.
- To intensify co-operation between member states, in matters of education, sport and economic development.
- To ensure personal liberty and equality of rights to all citizens regardless of race, colour, creed or political beliefs.
- To oppose all forms of colonial dominion by being committed to the principles of human dignity and equality, self-determination and non-racism.
- To promote the exchange of knowledge, professionalism and cultural, economic, legal and political issues.
- To fights poverty, ignorance and disease to remove wealth disparities and raise the living standards, and achieve a more equitable international society.
- To enhance free international trade by removing trade barriers, but at the same time, giving due consideration to the special requirements of the developing countries.
Organization of the Commonwealth
- The Head of state Summit. It meets once in every two years for a week for extensive decisions and consultations. Decisions are reached by consensus.
- Ministerial Meetings. The commonwealth ministers of Finance, Foreign Affairs and defence hold regular meetings once every year. Ministers of Health, Education and Law hold meetings once every three years
- The Commonwealth Secretariat: headed by the secretary general and with astaff of 350 drawn from member countries. It co-ordinates co-operation among members. The first secretary General was Arnold Smith of Canada. In 1990, Chief Emeka Anyaoku of Nigeria became the first African Secretary General.
- The Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-Operation; supplies funds, finance, experts and advisers for projects carried out in member states.
- The Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau; it provides co-operation in the field of agriculture.
- The Commonwealth Parliamentary Association; helps to improve relations between parliamentarians of member states.
- The Commonwealth Regional Health Secretariat for East, Central and Southern Africa; promotes cooperation in health.
Benefits of membership to Commonwealth
- Member states have received technical expertise through the provision of experts and advisers in various fields e.g. agriculture.
- The developing member states of the organization have acquired skilled manpower through the provision of scholarship and setting up of training programmes by nations like Britain and Canada.
- Member states have been able to interact with one another through activities such as the commonwealth games and cultural exchange programmes.
- Member states have conducted trade among themselves with relative ease and this has helped them to develop their economies.
- The organization has promoted friendship and understanding among member states through conferences such as The Heads of Government meetings.
- It has enhanced democratization process in developing member states of the organization
Functions of commonwealth (REF to evolving world page 60):
Problems facing Commonwealth of Nations
- Differences in economic development levels of member states militate against co-operation. Members coming from developing world have very different outlook from those coming from the developed world.
- Ideological disputes among member states have hampered the operations of the Commonwealth of Nations.
- Lacks sufficient funds to carry out its work efficiently. Poor members normally owe many debts to their foreign masters and would therefore toe to their demands.
- The problem of sovereignty. Many countries disregard the commonwealth resolutions in favour of their sovereignty.
- It lacks an effective machinery to affect its decisions. It also lacks a standing army to implement and effect its resolutions.
- Loyalty to other organizations. commonwealth members are also members of other organizations; the interests of these organizations are not in accord with those of the commonwealth
- The colonial legacy. Many problems arising from past colonial policies have rocked the organization. E.g. the land issue in Zimbabwe.
- The influence of other organizations like NATO who weaken the commonwealth by wooing members to their regions.
- Race and colour problem. The conflict between white and black people or other color has become another setback.
- Dominance by the big powers. This has caused dismay to the organization. Serious inner tension still undermines the commonwealth activities.
Judicial authority and legal system.
Principles that guide Judicial Authority in Courts and Tribunals in Kenya.
- Justice must be done to all, irrespective of status.
- Justice shall not be delayed.
- Alternative forms of dispute resolution must be pursued including reconciliation, mediation, arbitration and even traditional dispute resolution mechanism.
- Justice shall be administered without undue regard to procedural technicalities.
- The purposes and principles of the constitution must be protected and promoted.
Ways in which the traditional Dispute resolution is limited in Kenya.
- The mechanisms used in traditional dispute resolution should not contravene the Bill of RIGHTS.
- The traditional court should not operate in a way that is repugnant to justice and morality or results in outcomes that are repugnant to justice or morality.
- The operations of the traditional courts should not be inconsistent with the constitution.
The structure of the judicial system in Kenya.
- The seriousness of the cases the courts handle.
- The punishment they give out
- The geographical area of operation.
Difference between original and appellate jurisdictions.
- Original jurisdiction refers to the ability of a court to hear cases brought to a court for the first time.
- Appellate jurisdiction is the powers of a court to hear appeals brought in from a lower court.
The Head of the Judiciary is the Chief Justice with the Deputy Chief Justice as the Deputy Head of the Judiciary.
Chief Registrar of the Judiciary is the chief administrator and accounting officer of the Judiciary. The System of courts is as follows
1. Superior Courts
Appointment to the Supreme Court requires the following qualifications;
- Degree in law from a recognized university or an advocate of the high Court of Kenya.
- At Least fifteen years experience as a superior court judge or a distinguished academic, judicial officer, legal practitioner and or other relevant legal field.
- High moral character, integrity and impartiality.
Functions of the Supreme Court of Kenya.
- The Supreme Court has exclusive original jurisdiction to hear and determine disputes relating to the elections to the office of President.
- It has appellate jurisdiction to hear and determine appeals from the Court of Appeal; and any other court or tribunal.
- The Supreme Court gives an advisory opinion at the request of the national government, any State organ, or any county government with respect to any matter concerning county government.
- It has of right in any case involving the interpretation or application of the Constitution.
- All courts, other than the Supreme Court, are bound by the decisions of the Supreme Court
2. Court of Appeal
The court of appeal does not have original jurisdiction except on an application for a stay of execution pending appeal to it on contempt proceedings.
Function of the Court of Appeal in Kenya.
3. High Court
Functions of the high court of Kenya.
- The High Court has unlimited original jurisdiction in criminal and civil Matters.
- It has jurisdiction to determine the question whether a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights has been denied, violated, infringed or threatened.
- It has jurisdiction to hear an appeal from a decision of a tribunal appointed to consider the removal of a person from office. For example, appeals from the courts martial, Business and rental Tribunals on matters related to the constitution.
- It has jurisdiction to hear any question respecting the interpretation of the Constitution including the determination of the question whether any law is inconsistent with or in contravention of this Constitution;
- It determines any matter relating to constitutional powers of State organs in respect of county governments and any matter relating to the constitutional relationship between the levels of government.
- The High Court has supervisory jurisdiction over the subordinate courts and over any person, body or authority exercising a judicial or quasi-judicial function, but not over a superior court
- It listens to appeals from the lower courts when the parties involved are not satisfied.
- It deals with disputes that take place outside Kenya's territorial waters/maritime.
- It hears appeals from decisions made by professional disciplinary tribunals involving advocates of the high court and other members of the profession.
- It acts as a constitution court by determining whether a case brought before it is constitutional or unconstitutional.
- It listens to appeals from special courts when the parties are not satisfied with the decision made.
- It corrects/amends the irregularities in decisions made by lower courts.
- It hears cases that carry death sentences / involve large sums of money.
- It deals with cases that concern land/succession disputes.
- It hears election petitions.
- It exercises divorce jurisdictions in matrimonial matters,
- It hears appeals from tribunals E.g. Rent Restrictions, Business Premises Rent Tribunal.
Termination of the services of a judge from office.
- Inability to perform the functions of the office arising from mental or physical incapacity.
- A breach of a code of conduct prescribed for judges or superior courts by an act of parliament.
- Gross misconduct or misbehavior.
Such a process is initiated by the Judicial Service Commission on its own initiative or on petition of any person to it based on any of the dismissal grounds.
The commission, if satisfied with the petition or initiative, forwards the matter to the president, who will suspend the said Judge, within Fourteen Days after receiving the petition and on advice of the Judicial Service Commission.
A tribunal is then appointed to determine the case. If the Judge is aggrieved by the decision of the Tribunal, he/she may appeal to the Supreme Court within ten days after the tribunal has made its recommendation.
The president will finally act in accordance with the recommendation of the tribunal.
4. Subordinate courts.
Its jurisdiction in both Civil and criminal cases is limited to geographical areas. However the courts have unlimited Jurisdiction in proceedings concerning claims under
customary law such as dowry, divorce, legitimacy, inheritance and the administration of estates of the deceased person.
They have unlimited jurisdiction in dealing with matters related to land, adultery and inheritance.
These are the courts responsible for sentencing persons who have broken law of the land. Reasons why a person who has broken the law should be sentenced by a court.
- To deter the criminal from future crimes.
- To deter others from committing similar offences since they would have known the punishment for breaking the law.
- To secure for the public a period o protection from the offender who is in prison.
- To reform the criminal through counseling and corrective training
- To satisfy the demands of the people for retribution through punitive justice.
The courts are headed by a Chief Kadhi and not fewer than three Kadhis Qualifications for appointment as a Kadhi.
- One must profess the Muslim religion.
- One must possess such knowledge of the Muslim law applicable to any sects of Muslims. The jurisdiction of the Kadhis Court is limited to the determination of questions of Muslim Law relating to personal status, marriage, divorce or inheritance in proceedings in which all concerned parties profess to the Muslim religion.
- The Courts Martial.
There is no right to appeal to the high court against the decisions of the courts martial unless they involve constitutional cases. Industrial Court Juvenile Court
The Judicial Service Commission.
- The Chief Justice who is the Chairperson of the Commission.
- One Supreme Court judge elected by the judges of the Supreme Court. c) One court of appeal judge elected by the judges of the court of appeal.
- One High Court Judge and one magistrate, of whom one must be a woman and one a man elected by members of the association of judges and magistrates.
- The attorney General.
- Two advocates , one woman and one man each with at least fifteen years of experience, elected by members of the statutory body responsible for the professional regulation of advocates (LSK)
- One person nominated by the public Service Commission.
- One woman and one man to represent the public, not being a lawyer, appointed by the president with the approval of the national assembly.
- The chief registrar of the Judiciary, who will be secretary to the commission.
Functions of the Judicial Service Commission
- The Judicial Service Commission promotes and facilitates the independence and accountability of the judiciary and the efficient, effective and transparent administration of justice.
- It recommends to the President persons for appointment as judges.
- It reviews and makes recommendations on the conditions of service of judges and judicial officers, other than their remuneration; and the staff of the Judiciary.
- It appoints, receives complaints against, investigates and removes from office or otherwise discipline registrars, magistrates, other judicial officers and other staff of the Judiciary.
- It prepares and implements programmes for the continuing education and training of judges and judicial officers.
- It advises the national government on improving the efficiency of the administration of justice.
The concept of “Independence of the Judiciary” in Kenya.
- In the exercise of judicial authority, the Judiciary is subject only to the Constitution and the law and not to the control or direction of any person or authority.
- The office of a judge of a superior court cannot be abolished while there is a substantive holder of the office.
- A member of the Judiciary is not liable in an action or suit in respect of anything done or omitted to be done in good faith in the lawful performance of a judicial function. The Judicial Act protects Judges and Magistrates against any form of victimization and molestation.
- There is a separate system of command for the judiciary unlike other government departments.
- Appointment of the magistrates is done independently by JSC, which is independent of PSC. The president in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission appoints the Judges.
- The judges are bound by the Oath of Allegiance to perform their duties without fear or favour.
- Judges enjoy security of tenure.
- Statutes fix salaries and allowances of Judges.
Challenges facing the judiciary in Kenya.
- There is constant Conflict between the three arms of government. This hinders the just operation of the judiciary. Too much interference from the Executive has undermined the independence of the Judiciary.
- The long court processes have always delayed dispensation of justice in Kenya.
- Corruption. This is common among the Judges who sometimes compromise their integrity due to greed/ Public doubts of its impartiality due to rampant corruption
- Inadequate personnel. There are few qualified judges. For example in 2002, there were 47 judges serving a population of 30 million people. This causes delay in hearing of cases.
- There is constant termination of cases by the Attorney General thereby denying justice to some genuine cases.
- Poor co-ordination within the court system
- Incompetence of some judicial officers. E.g. poor and inconsistent judgments. This has been attributed to flawed appointments and promotion procedures.
- Lack of adequate funds to cater for the needs of the judiciary. This has led to inadequate court structures and facilities such as equipment, chairs, libraries etc.
- Lack of continuous legal education to keep them a breast of the latest legal development and skills in information technology.
- There is a lot of ignorance among the public in Kenya on judicial affairs and their legal rights/ignorance on the legal rights. Members of the public fear the courts and the court language.
- Information on the judiciary has not been made available to the public and it appears to be a preserve of a few.
- Litigation fees are high limits public’s access to the courts.
- There has been increased legal education given to officers and members of the public by the judiciary and other bodies like Kituo Cha Sheria, which releases information booklets and offers free legal advice to people.
- The terms and conditions of service for judges and other officers were improved in 2002 in order to make them work better.
- The government also set up a committee led by Justice Aaron Ringera in what was famously referred to as Judicial Surgery, to investigate the conduct of judges. Those who were adversely mentioned in the report were suspended.
- The government has recruited more legal officers to reduce the backlog of cases in courts.
- The passing of the Vetting of Judges and Magistrates Act, 2011 (VJM Act) In March 2011, established the Judges and Magistrates Vetting Board, chaired by Sharad Rao ,which is carrying out the vetting exercise to restore public confidence in the Judiciary.
- The suspension of Deputy CJ Nancy Baraza and her final resignation for harrassing an innocent security guard.
- Dropping of President of the Kenyan Appellate Court Justice Riaga Omollo for political bias and authoritarian demeanor while carrying out his activities on the bench.
- Dropping Judge Samuel Bosire for condoning torture of suspects during Coup trial in 1982.
- Dropping of Court of Appeal Judge Emmanuel Okubasu for being unsuitable to continue holding office. Joseph Nyamu
- Justice Mohammed Ibrahim, though Praised as impartial and immune to corruption, was dropped for having an overflowing in-tray of cases
- Appellate judge Roselyn Nambuye was kicked out due to delays in delivering more than 270 judgements and being too wordy in her ruling.
The Rule of Law.
Meaning of ‘the Rule of Law’.
In Kenya, all citizens and residents are subject to and governed by the same law irrespective of their status, race and religion
Elements of the rule of law.
- The principle of legality. The state can only exercise those powers granted to it by the law. It should be a government of laws and not of men.
- Separation of powers of the three arms of government. This refers to the practice of dividing the powers of government into the executive, legislature and judicial functions equally and putting in place a system of checks and balances to ensure they control each other. The three functions are to be independent of each other.
- Equality before the law. Everyone should be treated equally under the law.
- The judiciary must work without favour or the fear of intimidation in the administration of justice.
The principles of the Rule of Law.
- All laws should be prospective and open. A new law should only apply in future.
- Laws should be durable and not changing every other day.
- No centre of power, and specifically parliament, should enjoy monopoly right in making laws for citizens of a country, the judiciary should scrutinize parliament.
- The independence of the judiciary should be protected.
- The principal of natural justice should form an important element in the judicial system of a country.
- There must be easy accessibility to the courts of law. They should neither be expensive nor intimidating.
- The security forces should not use force in contravention of the law.
Meaning of the concept of Natural Justice.
Two principles govern the Concept of Natural Justice.
- The person affected by an impending decision must have the right to a fair hearing prior to the decision being made.
- The person or body hearing the case should act in good faith and without Bias. The right to fair hearing
- The accused must be given prior notice of the case against him and given a chance to respond.
- The accused must be given chance of knowing the case against him and stating his own case.
- The person charged should have opportunity to consider, challenge and contradict any evidence, being fully aware of the allegations leveled against him.
- The person has a right to legal representation by a legally qualified person.
- All legal decisions should have reasons within the law..
The rule against Bias.
A person is presumed innocent until proven otherwise and the police have no right to beat up suspects.
Meaning of the executive.
The National executive comprises;
a) The president.
b) The deputy president.
c) The cabinet.
d) The attorney general.
e) The director of public prosecutions
f) The public service.
He holds office for a five year term from the date of being sworn in to office and the term expires when the next candidate elected as president is sworn in. the constitution gives a two-five year term as the maximum period for the president’s position.
Qualifications for election as President in Kenya.
- A person qualifies for nomination as a presidential candidate if the person is a citizen by birth
- The person must be qualified to stand for election as a Member of Parliament.
- He or she must be nominated by a political party, or is an independent candidate and is nominated by not fewer than 2000 voters from each of a majority of counties.
A candidate must also attract 25% of the votes cast in more than half of the counties in kenya in order to qualify to be a president.
Disqualifications one from vying for election as a president in Kenya
- If the person owes allegiance to a foreign state.
- If he is a public officer, or is acting in any State or other public office.
Assumption of office of the president.
- The oath of affirmation of allegiance
- The oath of affirmation for execution of the functions of office.
Importance of a presidential election.
- The citizens get a chance to exercise their democratic right. It is the essence of democracy in a government. The people have a choice to elect a president directly, freely, and fairly.
- It is a means through which the people of Kenya give the president the mandate to rule the country and act on their behalf.
- It helps to check dictatorship. The president becomes responsible and accountable to the electorate. He cannot go against public opinion.
- The president enjoys legitimacy of power because it is derived from the people
Powers and functions of the president of Kenya as derived from the constitution of Kenya.
- a) As the Head of State, he performs the following functions;
- -He represents the government and the people of Kenya both locally and internationally.
- -He receives foreign diplomatic and consular representatives.
- b) He is the head of Government.
- -He nominates a deputy president to deputize him.
- -He nominates and, with the approval of the national assembly, appoints or dismisses cabinet secretaries, the attorney general, the Director of Public Prosecutions, the secretary to the cabinet, Principal secretaries, High Commissioners, Ambassadors, and diplomatic and consular representatives, the chief justice and the deputy and all the judges in line with the recommendations of the Judicial Service Commission
- c) He is the Commander-in-Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces
- -He has powers to declare a state of emergency, declare war with the approval of parliament.
- -He is the chairperson of the National Security Council of Kenya.
- d) The President has the duty to safeguard the Constitution, ensure the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the rule of law, safeguard the sovereignty of the republic, promote and enhance unity of the nation and promote respect for diversity.
- e)The President has legislative powers to address the opening of each newly elected Parliament. He also addresses a special sitting of parliament once every year and any other time.
- f) The President chairs Cabinet meetings and assigns responsibility for the implementation and administration of any Act of Parliament to a Cabinet Secretary.
- g) He presides over national holidays during which he expounds on government policy.
- h) He confers honours in the name of people and republic on men and women of Kenya for outstanding achievements. E.g. OGH, OBS, DSM, HSC and EBS.
- i) He may, on petition of any person, exercise mercy powers in accordance with the advice of the advisory committee. E.g.;
- -Grant a free or conditional pardon to a person convicted of an offence.
- -Postpone execution of any punishment for an offender , for a specified period, or indefinitely
- -Substitute a less severe form of punishment.
- -Remit all or part of a punishment.
- j) The President ensures that the international obligations of the Republic are fulfilled through the actions of the relevant Cabinet Secretaries.
The process of Removal of President by impeachment.
- A gross violation of a provision of the Constitution.
- President commits a crime under national or international law.
- For gross misconduct.
The President continues to perform the functions of the office pending the outcome of the proceedings.
Within seven days, the Speaker of the Senate convenes a meeting of the Senate to hear charges against the President.
A special committee appointed by the senate investigates the matter; and report to the Senate within ten days.
If the special committee reports that the particulars of any allegation against the President have not been substantiated, further proceedings shall not be taken
If any of allegations against the President have been substantiated, the Senate, after according the President an opportunity to be heard, votes on the impeachment charges.
If at least two-thirds of all the members of the Senate vote to uphold any impeachment charge, the President shall cease to hold office.
Reasons that may lead to a presidential by-election in Kenya.
- The president’s election may be nullified by court due to election offences.
- The serving president may die while in power.
- The president may resign.
- If the president becomes physically /mentally incapacitated.
- Parliament may pass a vote of no confidence in the president /government.
- If the serving president deserts/defects from the party that sponsored him to parliament.
- If the serving president ceases to be a Kenyan citizen.
THE DEPUTY PRESIDENT
The process of Electing and swearing in of a Deputy President in Kenya.
- A candidate, (qualified for nomination for election as President) is nominated by each candidate in a presidential election.
- The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission then declare the candidate nominated by the person who is elected as the President as the Deputy President.
- The swearing in of the Deputy President-elect is before the Chief Justice or, in the absence of the Chief Justice, the Deputy Chief Justice and in public.
- The Deputy President-elect assumes office by taking and subscribing;
- The oath or affirmation of allegiance.
- The oath or affirmation for the execution of the functions of office.
Under the following circumstances, one can cease to hold the office of the Deputy President
- At the end of term of office when the person next elected President at an election is sworn in.
- When the Deputy President assumes the office of President.
- On resignation, death or removal from office of the Deputy President
Functions of the Deputy President in Kenya.
- The Deputy President is the principal assistant of the President and shall deputize for the President in the execution of the President’s functions.
- The Deputy President performs the functions conferred by the Constitution and any other functions of the President as the President may assign.
- When the President is absent or is temporarily incapacitated, and during any other period that the President decides, the Deputy President shall act as the President.
The composition of The Cabinet in Kenya.
- the President;
- the Deputy President;
- the Attorney-General; and
- Not fewer than fourteen and not more than twenty-two Cabinet Secretaries.
A Cabinet Secretary should not be a Member of Parliament.
Secretary to the cabinet.
The office holder is nominated and appointed by the president, with the approval of the national assembly. He/she has the following responsibilities;
- Taking charge of the cabinet office.
- Arranging the business of the cabinet subject to its directions.
- Keeping minutes of the cabinet.
- Conveying decisions of the cabinet to the appropriate persons or authorities.
- Serving other functions as directed by the cabinet.
This office is an office in the public service.
General Functions of the cabinet.
- The cabinet Advises and assists the president in governing the country.
- The cabinet Discusses matters of national and international concern with the president.
- The cabinet Formulates government policies and programmes. During parliamentary debates, the secretaries defend the same policies, interpret them to the people and ensure their implementation.
- The cabinet initiates new bills and table government bills in the National assembly.
- Cabinet secretaries on their individual capacity give direction to operations within their ministries.
- The secretary for finance formulates and prepares the national budget which he/she then presents to the National Assembly.
The principle of collective responsibility of the cabinet.
- The cabinet does not work in the light of day. Cabinet must abide by oath of secrecy.
- It requires that the cabinet must act together as a team. The cabinet must speak together with one voice on all matters of government policy.
- All cabinet members are collectively responsible to parliament and to the people through parliament. One act of a cabinet secretary is taken to be an act of all the members of the cabinet.
- A minister would resign if in his conscience he cannot abide by the principle of collective responsibility.
The functions of the Attorney-General in Kenya.
- The Attorney-General is the principal legal adviser to the Government.
- He represents the national government in court or in any other legal proceedings to which the national government is a party, other than criminal proceedings.
- He performs any other functions conferred on the office by an Act of Parliament or by the President.
- The Attorney-General has authority, to appear as a friend of the court in any civil proceedings to which the Government is not a party.
- The Attorney-General has duty to promote, protect and uphold the rule of law and defend the public interest.
The Director of public prosecutions.
He/she does not require the consent of any person or authority for the commencement of criminal proceedings. His/her powers may be exercised in person or by subordinate officers acting under general or special instructions.
A person qualified to be appointed a DPP should have the qualifications to be appointed a judge of the High Court.
The functions of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
- The Director of Public Prosecutions has power to direct the Inspector-General of the National Police Service to investigate any information or allegation of criminal conduct.
- The Director of Public Prosecutions exercises State powers of prosecution and may institute and undertake criminal proceedings against any person before any court (other than a court martial) in respect of any offence alleged to have been committed.
- He has powers to take over and continue any criminal proceedings commenced in any court (other than a court martial) that have been instituted or undertaken by another person or authority, with the permission of the person or authority.
- He has powers to discontinue at any stage, before judgment is delivered, any criminal proceedings instituted by the Director of Public Prosecutions or taken over by the Director of Public Prosecutions.
THE PUBLIC SERVICE
Values and principles of public service
- High standards of professional ethics.
- Efficient, effective and economic use of resources.
- Responsive, prompt, effective, impartial and equitable provision of services.
- Involvement of the people in the process of policy making.
- Accountability of administrative acts.
- Transparency and provision to the public, of timely, accurate information.
- Fair competition and merit as the basis of appointments and promotions
- Representation of Kenya’s diverse communities.
- Providing adequate and equal opportunities for appointment, training and advancement at all levels of the public service, for women and men, members of all ethnic groups and persons with disability.
The Public Service Commission.
The commission consists of a chairperson, a vice chair person and seven other members appointed by the president with the approval of the National Assembly.
The commission has a secretary who is the CEO and is appointed by the commission for a term of five years and is eligible for re-appointment.
The following persons do not qualify for appointment to the commission;
A person who in the proceeding five years, held office, or stood for elections as;
- A member of parliament or the county assembly.
- A member of the governing body of a political party.
- If the person holds any state office.
- A holder of an office in a political organization that sponsors or supports a candidate for election as Member of Parliament or county assembly.
Functions and powers of the Public Service Commission.
- The Commission is responsible for establishment and abolishment of offices in the public service.
- It appoints persons to hold or act in Offices in the public service and confirm appointments.
- It exercises disciplinary control over and removes persons holding or acting in public offices.
- It promotes the values and principles throughout the public service.
- It investigates monitors and evaluates the organization, administration and personnel practices of the public service.
- It has the duty to ensure that the public service is efficient and effective.
- It develops human resources in the public service.
- It reviews and makes recommendations to the national government in respect of conditions of service, code of conduct and qualifications of officers in the public service.
- It evaluates and reports to the President and Parliament on the extent to which the values and principles that govern public service are complied with in the public service.
- It hears and determines appeals in respect of county governments’ public service.
Offices in the public service that are exempted from the regulation and control of the public service commission;
- State offices.
- An office of high commissioner, ambassador or other diplomatic or consular representative of the republic.
- An office or position subject to:
- The Parliamentary Service Commission.
- The Judicial Service Commission.
- The Teachers Service Commission
- The National Police Service Commission.
- An office in the service of a county government, with the exception of powers to create and establish offices.
Ways in which a public officer is protected by law while in service.
- A public officer shall not be victimized or discriminated against for having performed the functions of office in accordance with the Constitution.
- He/she shall not be dismissed, removed from office, demoted in rank or otherwise subjected to disciplinary action without due process of law.
Organs of national security.
Principles that promote and guarantee national security in Kenya.
- National security is subject to the authority of the constitution and parliament.
- Operations of national security must be consistent with the law and must respect the rule of law, democracy, human rights and fundamental freedoms.
- In performing their functions and exercising their powers, national security organs must respect cultural diversity of the communities within Kenya.
- Recruitment by the national security organs must reflect the diversity of the Kenyan people in equitable proportions.
National security organs in Kenya.
- The Kenya Defence Forces.
- The National Intelligence Service.
- The National Police Service.
National Security Council
Composition of the National Security Council
- The President.
- The Deputy President.
- The Cabinet Secretary responsible for Defence.
- The Cabinet Secretary responsible for foreign affairs.
- The Cabinet Secretary responsible for internal security.
- The Attorney-General.
- The Chief of Kenya Defence Forces.
- The Director-General of the National Intelligence Service.
- The Inspector-General of the National Police Service.
Functions of the National Security Council in Kenya.
- It exercises supervisory control over national security organs.
- It has duty to integrate the domestic, foreign and military policies relating to national security in order to enable the national security organs to co-operate and function effectively.
- It makes assessment and appraisal, the objectives, commitments and risks to the Republic in respect of actual and potential national security capabilities.
- The Council reports annually to Parliament on the state of the security of Kenya
- With the approval of Parliament, The Council is responsible for deploying national forces outside Kenya for regional or international peace support operations; or other support operations.
- It approves the deployment of foreign forces in Kenya.
The Kenya Defence Forces.
- The Kenya Army, established in 1963 and which protects the country against external land-based aggression.
- The Kenya Air force, established in 1963, disbanded in 1982 and renamed 82 Air force. It helps in the control of locust invasion.
- The Kenya Navy, based in Mombasa and created in 1964, patrols Kenya’s territorial waters and is always on the alert for sea-borne invasions, and for illegal landings and departure, and unauthorized fishing by foreign vessels in Kenyan waters.
Functions of the Kenya Defence forces.
- The Defence Forces are responsible for the Defence and protection of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic.
- They assist and cooperate with other authorities in situations of emergency or disaster.
- They may be deployed to restore peace in any part of Kenya affected by unrest or instability only with the approval of the National Assembly.
- The forces also assist in the preservation of internal security. For example the handling of the attempted coup by the Kenya Army in 1982.
- They participate in nation building activities such as road and bridge construction.
- The military also assists the public during emergencies and calamities such as floods, famine, fire outbreaks, landslides and other disasters. For example during the El Nino rains-construction of mobile bridge on Mombasa-Nairobi highway.
- The Navy specializes in detecting and fighting off criminals who use water masses like the Indian Ocean to commit crimes within the Kenyan territory. E.g. Somali Pirates.
- The Kenya Army takes part in peacekeeping Missions, such as the United Nations peacekeeping operations in different parts of the world and also the African Union and Commonwealth.
The Kenya Defence Council.
- The cabinet secretary responsible for defence is the chairperson.
- The Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces.
- The Three Commanders of the defence forces.
- The Principal Secretary in the ministry responsible for defence.
It is responsible for the overall policy, control and supervision of the Kenya Defence Forces.
Challenges facing the Kenya Defence Forces.
- There has being cases of indiscipline, such as the abortive coup attempt in 1982.
- There have been rampant cases of corruption facing some members of the Kenya Defence Forces, especially on matters of recruitment of new members into the defence forces, purchase of military and police equipment and deployment of officers on specialized duties.
- Tribalism, regionalism and nepotism have also been experienced in the Kenya Defence Forces, thereby demoralizing hardworking officers who are left out unfairly during promotions.
- Sometimes the Kenya Defence Forces faces the problem of lack of adequate funds to equip the forces with good equipment to facilitate their work.
- The majority of the military personnel are not provided with opportunities to acquire further education.
- Piracy and militia attacks and raids at the Kenyan Borders also present a major security challenge to the Defence Forces.
- Invasion of Kenya’s territorial waters by foreign fishermen and foreign fishing vessels from the big nations challenges the ability of the Kenya Navy to curb illegal fishing.
- The location of Moi Airbase at Eastleigh presents a big challenge to the air force. The Airbase was built by Britain in 1964 when the population in the area was scarce. Today the area has human congestion
- The defence forces also face challenges related to allegations on violations of human rights. After the 2008 elections violence, the Kenyan Army was deployed to restore peace in Mt. Elgon, where they were accused of violating human rights by killing people, destroying property, and sexually assaulting women.
The National Intelligence Service.
Function of the National Intelligence Service
- It is responsible for security intelligence and counter intelligence to enhance national security.
- It liaises with the National police CID to investigate some of the threats that have criminal implications e.g. terrorism. And lay the appropriate charges.
- Information gathered by the NIS assists the government in decision –making and planning.
- The NIS in its operations protects human rights issues and the individual freedoms.
Challenges facing the National Intelligence Service.
- Lack of trust from Kenyan citizens. The citizens are reluctant to provide information to NIS as they view it not to be any different from the former Special Branch which was known to be a tool of oppression and torture.
- The body lacks financial credibility and political independence. The extent to which NIS is Neutral in its handling of sensitive affairs is questionable.
- Lack of a clear distinction between accountability and necessary secrecy has sometimes brewed tension. It is difficult to audit the activities of the Body just like any other government organization, due to the nature of its tasks.
- The growing volumes and complexity of communications presents a significant security challenge for national intelligence and government agencies that seek to intercept, process monitor and analyze it.
- External and internal threats for example Al-shabaab militia from Somalia, Merille Warriors from Ethiopia and Al-Qaeda attacks. Internally, the refugees hosted in Kenya and the illegal migrants from Somali and Sudan are also a threat. The problem of drug trafficking is also a threat.
- Continuous capacity building training is a necessity, given the complexity of the task. However this remains a challenge.
- Limited financial and human resources since inadequate funds are allocated to the service. This limits its operations. Sometimes even the staff employed is incompetent.
- Political interference- with the aim of using the service to gain political mileage.
- Ignorance of the Kenyan people on the kind of tasks the service undertakes and the advice it gives to the government. For example, anytime the country has been faced with tension or violence as was the case in 2008, the public seem not to understand the role of NIS.
- The organ does not have implementation powers and is limited in terms of the ability to follow up an implementation of the advice given to the government.
The National Police Service.
It is headed by the Inspector-General who appointed by the president with the approval of the parliament.
He / She exercises independent command over the national police service The National polices Service Consists of;
- The Kenya Police Service, headed by a deputy inspector general also appointed by the president in accordance with the police service commission recommendations.
- The Administration Police Service, headed by a deputy inspector general also appointed by the president in accordance with the police service commission recommendations.
Functions of the National Police Service
- The National Police Service is responsible for the operations of the Kenya police service and the Administration police service in Kenya.
- It has the duty of ensuring the highest standards of professionalism and discipline among its members.
- It has the duty to prevent corruption and promote and practice transparency and accountability.
- It has the duty to ensure that organs operating under it comply with constitutional standards of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
- It ensures that the staff is trained to the highest possible standards of competence and integrity and to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms and dignity.
- It fosters and promotes relationships with the broader society.
Functions of the police service (Kenya police service and administration police service).
- The police maintain law and order to ensure that those who break the law are arrested.
- The police protect the law in order to safeguard both life and property.
- It investigates crime and prosecutes offenders in the court.
- The police confines suspected criminals in remand as they await the hearing and judgment of their cases in the court.
- The police regulate traffic and arrests traffic offenders. They also check for defective or unroadworthy vehicles on the road in order to safeguard life.
- Provides assistance and relief services to victims of natural calamities such as floods, fire outbreaks and other emergencies.
- Takes part in national projects such as road construction, bridges, hospitals and other national facilities.
- The police take a leading role during public holidays. They control the crowd and entertain people.
- They liaise closely with international police (Interpol), in order to investigate and arrest international criminals such as terrorists and notorious Somali pirates.
Challenges facing the National Police Service
- The police lack adequate transport and communication equipment necessary to discharge their duties. Lack of facilities such as radios, motor vehicles etc.
- Frequent road accident and congestion on roads add pressure to police work.
- Many members of the public in Kenya have Negative attitude towards the police making it difficult for them to discharge duties.
- Poor conditions of work and remuneration demotivates the police force.
- The police force has been accused of Corruption, sometimes demanding for money from the public. This undermines the maintenance of law and order.
- Easy access to dangerous and sophisticated weapon by criminals makes police work more difficult.
- Terrorism is a serious challenge to the police in Kenya. Some of the terrorists have targeted members of the police force.
- Political interference in the work of the police compromises the integrity of the police force.
- Modernization and advancements in ICT also some with major challenges for the police. Incidents of cyber crimes have escalated in the world, including kenya.
- Lack of regular – in service training for police officers to cope with emerging challenges. This challenge is even compounded by the problem of recruiting of people with low academic qualifications into the force and who can’t deal with sophisticated cases.
The National Police Service Commission.
The structure of the National Police Service Commission.
- A person who is qualified to be appointed as a High Court Judge, and who is appointed by the president.
- Two retired senior police officers, each of whom is appointed by the president.
- Three persons of integrity who have served the public with distinction, each of whom is appointed by the president.
- The Inspector-General of the National Police Service.
- Both Deputy Inspectors-General of the National Police Service.
Functions of the National Police Service Commission
- The Commission recruits and appoints persons to hold or act in offices in the service.
- The commission confirms appointments, and determines promotions and transfers within the National Police Service
- It observes due process, exercises disciplinary control over and removes persons holding or acting in offices within the Service.
Possible solutions to challenges facing the national security organs.
- The security organs have acquired modern telecommunication equipment and vehicles to improve transport and communication in the security force.
- Introduction of the post of public Relations Officer/ Spokesman in the organs to coordinate and disseminate information.
- Raising of qualification requirements for anybody aspiring to join the security organs. This has paved way for employment of university graduates in the forces.
- Introduction of professional training programmes for officers with the aim of improving the effectiveness of the organs of national security.
- The terms and conditions of service for the members of the security organs have been improved
- Community policing has-been introduced to help the security forces to get information from the public through hotlines and suggestion boxes.
- There is increased patrolling by the Kenya navy as far north as Somali border to address maritime defence more seriously.
- The aviation experts have recommended the relocation of Moi Airbase from its current location which id congested.
In 1963 the Prisons Act was enacted to harmonize the treatment and conditions of offenders in
Kenya’s penal institutions. The Act’s milestone provisions were;
- Youth corrective training centres
- Extra-mural and penal employment
- Provision for organization, discipline, power and duties of prisons officers. Correctional services in Kenya are provided by the former Kenya Prisons Service.
- Interactive collaboration with all stakeholders in the administration of criminal justice such as courts of law and members of the National Police Service.
- Improvement in the management and conditions of the prisons, including rehabilitation programmes, with a view to empower prisoners with knowledge and skill, hasten their reintegration into society and empower them to be law abiding citizens upon release.
The functions of Correctional Services in Kenya.
- They Rehabilitate/correct criminals through counseling.
- They deter known criminals from committing other crimes.
- They administer Punishment to sentenced criminals as prescribed by the court rulings-implement the decisions of the courts regarding treatment of prisoners.
- They confine prisoners convicted by the courts of law to ensure that the rights and freedoms of the public are protected.
- They provide vocational training for prisoners in fields that they make them productive citizens of the country at the end of their jail term.
- They keep watch over he behaviors of suspected criminals whose cases are still pending in the law courts.
- They take care of the welfare of prisoners by providing them with the necessary medical attention.
- They confine suspected dissidents who are a threat to state security.
Challenges facing correctional services in Kenya
- The challenge of overcrowding in prisoners on the rise, overcrowding in correctional facilities has been inevitable. This results in poor living and sanitation conditions for inmates.
- Disease outbreak is a very common problem in our prisons mainly caused by inadequate and congested facilities. HIV and AIDS is rampant in prisons
- Mistreatment of inmates by warders. This has once happened at Kingongo when some inmates were allegedly tortured and killed by warders when they attempted to escape.
- Food shortage, inadequate medical facilities and poor clothing further compound the situation in prisons.
- Improvement in the quality of food, medical services and living conditions for prisoners.
- Provision of sufficient beddings and clothing.
- Introduction of extra-mural Penal employment for petty offenders to ease congestion in the prisons.
- There has been supply of new and comfortable motor vehicles for efficient transport in the correctional services department.
- Petty offenders have been constantly released to ease congestion in prisons. For example the release of a record 11,500 prisoners in December 2003. Death row inmates who have also been in jail for over ten years have been released.
- Easing of access to prisons/visits by members of the public/relatives.
- Introduction of public Relations office to disseminate information.
- Streamlining the hearing of cases with a view of keeping prisoners in remand for a short period before sentencing them.
- The national government has also become directly involved the affairs of those receiving correction services.
The two components of the Kenyan Parliament/legislature are;
- The National Assembly.
- The Senate.
The Composition and membership of the National Assembly.
- Two hundred and ninety members, each elected by the registered voters of single member constituencies.
- Forty-seven women, each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency.
- twelve members nominated by parliamentary political parties according to their proportion of members of the National Assembly to represent special interests including the youth, persons with disabilities and workers.
- The Speaker, who is an ex officio member.
Membership of the Senate
- forty-seven members each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency
- Sixteen women members nominated by political parties according to their proportion of members of the Senate elected.
- Two members, being one man and one woman, representing the youth.
- Two members, being one man and one woman, representing persons with disabilities.
- The Speaker, who shall be an ex officio member.
Office of parliament.
Speakers and deputy speakers.
Two Speakers, ex-officio member, one for each of the two houses.
Each is elected by members of the respective house from among persons who are qualified to be elected as members of parliament but are not MPs. A deputy speaker is elected from among members of each of the houses by the mps.
Their offices become vacant when;
- A new house of parliament first meets after an election.
- When he/she resigns, dies.
- When a house resolution of two-thirds removes him/her from office.
The speaker has no vote in parliament and in case of a tie, The question is lost. The six speakers in Kenya since independence include;
- 2013-present - Justin Muturi.
- 2008-2013- Kenneth Marende.
- 1993-2007- Francis Ole Kaparo
- 1991- 1992-Professor Jonathan Ngeno
- 1988- 1990-Moses Arap Keino
- 1970 – 1987- Frederick Mbiti Mati.
- 1964-1969-Humphrey Slade became the first speaker of the single house.
- 1963- Muinga Chokwe (speaker of the upper house)
- 1963- Humphrey slade (speaker of the lower house).
Role of the speaker.
- He/she presides over the proceedings of the house and ensures that they are conducted in accordance with the rules of procedure. He enforces standing orders in the house.
- The speaker disciplines members of the house who violate standing orders by ordering such them to leave the house or be barred from attending three house consecutive sittings.
- Maintains order during debates and enforces rules which govern conduct of the house. The speaker interprets the rules of the house.
- He/she gives the MPs chance to contribute towards house debates to ensure that the minority are given a fair hearing before the will of the majority prevails.
- He/she represents and protects the authority of the house.
- He/she organizes and determines the business to be conducted in the house by receiving Bills, motions and questions for discussion in the house, and then prepares an order paper.
- He/she adjourns sittings if the house lacks a quorum.
- He/she keeps and maintains the attendance register and grants permission to MPs to be absent from sessions. MPs going out of the country must inform the speaker of their absence from Kenya.
- He/she heads the National Assembly department and takes charge of its general administration and welfare. He/she is responsible for preserving dignity and order and for the comfort and convenience of the members and staff within parliament buildings.
- He/she chairs the speaker’s committee, the committee of powers and Privileges and the standing Order Committee.
- The speaker issues orders and makes rules for the regulation of visitors to parliament and represent parliament in its relations with foreign countries.
- The speaker chairs the branches of the commonwealth Parliamentary Association, Inter-Parliamentary Union and the Union of African Parliaments. He/she represents Parliament at the commonwealth speaker’s conference.
- He/she declares parliamentary seats vacant and issues writs for general elections and by-elections.
- He/she receives and accepts letters of resignation from members of parliament.
- He/she swears in members of parliament before participating in the House deliberations.
- He, summons parliament to a new when parliamentarians are on recess.
- As part of parliament officers, there is the leader of the majority party and leader of minority party.
- The majority party leader is the person who is the leader in the national assembly of the largest party or coalition of parties.
- The minority party leader is the person who is the leader in the national assembly of the second largest party or coalition of parties.
Role of party leaders.
- They promote and uphold national unity through party activities.
- They enforce adherence to principles of good governance, democracy and upholding human rights and fundamental freedoms and gender equality and equity.
- The leaders work to advance the goals of the party and ensure their programme is carried out to the satisfaction of the party.
- The leader of the majority party has to ensure and maintain support for legislation.
- The leader of the minority party has to protect the rights of the minority.
- The leader of the majority party has to ensure accountability and transparency in the party. And the government.
Functions of parliament in Kenya.
- The elected members of parliament Represents the will of the people, and exercises their sovereignty.
- Parliament considers and passes amendments to the Constitution
- It has powers to alter county boundaries as provided for in the Constitution.
- Parliament has the duty to protect the Constitution and promote the democratic governance of the Republic.
- Parliament is the sole body that has the power to make provision having the force of law in Kenya
Functions of the National Assembly in Kenya.
- The national assembly represents the will of the people and expresses their sovereignty since it represents people from the 290 constituencies and special interest groups.
- The National Assembly deliberates on and resolves issues of concern to the people in the Constituencies and special interest groups.
- The National Assembly enacts legislation that affect the nation-not the county government. For example the money bill may be introduced only in the national assembly.
- The National Assembly determines the allocation of national revenue between the levels of government/it controls revenue and expenditure in the republic.
- It appropriates funds for expenditure by the national government and other national State organs/ it exercises oversight over national revenue and its expenditure.
- The National Assembly reviews the conduct in office of the President, the Deputy President and other State officers/It may initiate the process of removing them from office.
- The National Assembly approves declarations of war and extensions of states of emergency.
Functions of the Senate in Kenya
- The Senate represents the counties, and serves to protect the interests of the counties and their governments.
- The Senate participates in the law-making function of Parliament by considering, debating and approving Bills concerning counties.
- The Senate determines the allocation of national revenue among counties/It exercises oversight over national revenue allocated to the county governments.
- The Senate participates in the oversight of State officers by considering and determining any resolution to remove the President or Deputy President from office.
The process of law making in Kenya.
This is the process of enacting new laws or amending the existing ones.
The two conditions for the start of a law making process are
- The presence of a speaker or his deputy.
- A quorum of fifty members of the national assembly.
- A quorum of 15 members of the senate.
- A bill is a proposed piece of legislation (law). Bills originate in the National Assembly.
- A Bill not concerning county government is considered only in the National Assembly, and passed in accordance with the Standing Orders of the Assembly.
- A Bill concerning county government may originate in the National Assembly or the Senate, and is passed in accordance with the Standing Orders of the Houses.
a) Public Bill- these deal with matters of public policy that affect all citizens of Kenya. They are also categorized into two;
- Government Bill-introduced by cabinet secretaries.
- Private member’s Bill.-introduced by back-benchers in the national assembly
This a bill that has provisions dealing with taxes, payment of charges by public, appropriation , receipt ,custody or issue of public money, raising or guaranteeing of any loan, its repayment or other matters relating to such monies.
- The government departments and public offices to be affected by a bill consult first before it is drafted. A bill is then drafted by the government draftsman (the parliamentary counsel) in the attorney general’s chambers.
- When the cabinet is satisfied with the draft, it is published in the Kenya gazette at least fourteen days before it is introduced to parliament. The main purpose of this is to give the public chance to view and criticize the Bill. The draft proposal is also presented to parliament to give members chance to research on it on preparation for a debate in the future.
- A Bill is first introduced by any member or committee of the relevant House of Parliament, but a money Bill may be introduced only in the National Assembly.
- Before either House considers a Bill, the Speakers of the National Assembly and Senate jointly resolve any question as to whether it is a Bill concerning counties and, if it is, whether it is a special or an ordinary Bill.
- When any Bill concerning county government has been passed by one House of Parliament, the Speaker of that House refers it to the Speaker of the other House.
- If both Houses pass the Bill in the same form, the Speaker of the House in which the Bill originated shall, within seven days, refer the Bill to the President for assent.
- The National Assembly may amend or veto a special Bill that has been passed by the Senate only by a resolution supported by at least two-thirds of the members of the Assembly.
- Within fourteen days after receipt of a Bill, the President assents to the Bill; or refer the Bill back to Parliament for reconsideration by Parliament, noting any reservations that the President has concerning the Bill.
- Parliament may amend the bill in light of the president’s reservations or pass the bill a second time without amendments.
- If parliament amends the Bill after consideration of the president’s reservations, the speaker must resubmit the bill to the president for assent.
- Parliament could pass the bill without amendments or with amendments that do not fully accommodate the president’s reservations if supported by;
- Two-thirds of the members of the national assembly, and
- Two-thirds of the delegations in the senate, if the bill requires approval of the senate.
- The bill then has to be submitted by the appropriate speaker to the president for assent within seven days.
- If the president fails to assent the bill within seven days, the bill will be considered acted upon and therefore considered null and void.
The process of the bill coming into force as a law.
Sections of it may also be published in the local dailies so as to publicize the law to all residents in the country.
The Act of parliament then comes into force as a law on the fourteenth day after its publication in the Kenya Gazette unless the Act specifies a different date or time when it will come into force. The law then binds everybody in the country.
Special Bills concerning county governments.
Ordinary Bills concerning counties.
A mediation committee refers to a committee comprising equal number of members from both houses appointed by the speaker with the task of formulating a version of the Bill that both Houses could pass.
Both houses will then vote to pass or reject the formulated version. The Bill is considered rejected if the committee fails to reach an agreed version within 30 days.
If the second House passes it in an amended form, the bill must be taken back to the originating house for consideration. If the originating house passes it as amended; it is referred to the president for assent within seven days. If it rejects it, it is referred to the mediation committee.
Meaning of parliamentary supremacy
How parliamentary supremacy is upheld in Kenya.
- It is the only Body that makes and repeals laws. Technically, a constitutional court can overrule an act of parliament, but parliament can change the law to prevent that from happening.
- Parliament can remove the president from office by impeachment. A member of the national assembly, with the support of at least a third of all the members, may move an impeachment motion.
- Parliament through an amendment of the constitution, can limit the powers of the executive. It can also pass a vote of no confidence in the government, compelling the president and his/her cabinet secretaries to resign.
- Cabinet secretaries are accountable to the parliament for their activities in the ministries under their control. They have to answer questions in parliament about their ministries.
- Bills prepared by the cabinet have to be legislated by parliament, which is a law making body.
- Parliament has to approve government expenditure. The Cabinet secretary in charge of Finance annually presents the budget to parliament for approval by MPs. - the public accounts committee scrutinizes government expenditure. The Auditor and controller-General check the expenditure of all ministries and reports to parliament.
Ways in which parliamentary supremacy in Kenya is limited.
- Parliament cannot make laws that contradict traditional customs and practices of the people, unless people want change.
- Parliament cannot pass a law that contradicts the constitution. /the supremacy of the constitution is upheld.
- Increased power of the cabinet can reduce parliament’s authority. If the cabinet is too powerful, it may influence parliamentary decisions.
- The president can limit the supremacy by making independent decisions. For example, the president has emergency powers which sidestep parliamentary supremacy. State of Emergency does not follow parliamentary directions.
- Parliament supremacy can be limited by the application of international laws. Parliament may be forced to ratify a law out of necessity; failure to ratify an international law may invite punitive actions on the country.
- Delegated legislation may also limit its powers, i.e. the operation of the county government by-laws may limit parliamentary supremacy although national legislation prevails over county legislation.
- Referendum may be used to decide important issues as opposed to parliamentary decisions.
Merits of parliamentary supremacy/parliamentary system.
- It increases harmony, since the legislature and the executive work together. This is realized when MPs, who represent the electorate, bring their views to the executive (cabinet secretaries) in the legislature.
- This system allows ordinary citizens to participate in the governing process by electing their representatives to articulate their views on issues of national interest.
- It ensures a responsible and responsive government since the cabinet is controlled by parliament in its actions. Cabinet cannot ignore public opinion, since people choose the MPs. Such could risk a vote of no confidence.
- It instills a sense of responsibility in the executive since cabinet secretaries have to sit and answer questions in the house.
- The system legitimizes actions taken by the government, particularly when such actions originate from recommendations passed by the MPs- the people’s representatives.
- A parliamentary system gives citizens a chance to participate in national political leadership through presenting themselves for election as members of parliament or county assemblies.
- It provides for regular elections, giving the electorate the chance to reject non-performing MPs and elect others who can perform.
- Parliament is a training ground for effective leaders; the system enables Kenyans of ability and experience to prove their worth in parliamentary debates.
Demerits of parliamentary supremacy.
- It only works well where there are two parties; with one ruling while the other in opposition. In a case where there are more than two parties. A coalition government may be formed and this form of government is sometimes weak and unstable. Also where the legislature is dominated by one party, the cabinet tends to be dictatorial.
- Such government may not be effective in times of emergencies. The head of government has to consult with the cabinet and the legislature before acting.
- It weakens the executive. It compels the cabinet secretaries to spend most of their time in parliament instead of dealing with matters of their ministries.
“Terminative Role of Parliament” in Kenya.
Functions of the Parliamentary Service Commission
- The Commission is responsible for providing services and facilities to ensure the efficient and effective functioning of Parliament
- It is responsible for constituting offices in the house.
- It prepares annual estimates of expenditure of the parliamentary service and submitting them to the National Assembly for approval, and exercising budgetary control over the service.
- It is responsible for undertaking, singly or jointly with other relevant organizations, programmes to promote the ideals of parliamentary democracy.
- It performs other functions necessary for the well-being of the members and staff of Parliament; or prescribed by national legislation.
Chapter 15: Democracy And Human Rights
Chapter 16: European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
CHAPTER 23: The Formation
CHAPTER 24: WORLD WARS
Chapter 25: International Relations
Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa
Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya)
Chapter 28: Social
Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World
CHAPTER 4: AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 5: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UPTO THE 19TH CENTURY
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT FORM 1 TOPICS
HISTORY FORM 1 NOTES
Industrialization In Britain
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE AFRICAN UNION
The Coming Of The Portuguese
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPACT OF OMANI RULE AT THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
THE LAND ENCLOSURE SYSTEM
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
The Scientific Revolution.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
WORLD WAR 1 CONTINUED....
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