Definition of Teaching
iNTRODUCTION TO PEDAGOGY
Pedagogy has its origin from the Greek language ‘paidagogos’; ‘paid’ for child ‘agogos’ for leader. This simply means ‘slave who took child to school’. Valerie O ’Loughlin & Grand Summarizer from INDIANA UNIVERSITY BLOOMINGTON define pedagogy as the art, science or profession of teaching they also define it as the exploration of effective teaching and learning strategies.
Chris Watkins and Peter Mortimore sees the origin of the term 'pedagogy' from a different perspective but more of the same as what Valerie O ’Loughlin’s & Grand Summarizer’s definition.
They also argue, "we recognize that, as with other complex ideas, pedagogy will be difficult to define - even in the formal literature on the subject. The boundaries of the concept may seem unclear, but the ways in which different writers have drawn them may itself be instructive."
Pedagogy is neither science nor art: pedagogy is a craft, an approach suggested by writers who recognize uncertainty and the limits of predictability (McDonald, 1 992; Marland, 1 993).
DEFINITION OF PEDAGOGY
DEFINITION OF PEDAGOGY
Pedagogy itself is a contested term, but involves activities that evoke changes in the learner: Watkins and Mortimore define pedagogy as ‘any conscious activity by one person designed to enhance learning in another’ (1999, p.3).
According to Bernstein, pedagogy ‘is a sustained process whereby somebody(s) acquires new forms or develops existing forms of conduct, knowledge, practice and criteria from somebody(s) or something deemed to be an appropriate provider and evaluator’ (Bernstein, 2000, p.78). Bernstein contrasts two models of pedagogy that focus on the teacher’s organisation, management, discourse and response to the students and which provide a useful theoretical framework with which to understand different pedagogical approaches:
Performance model: visible pedagogies where the teacher explicitly spells out to the students what and how they are to learn, with a recognisable strong framing or lesson structure, collective ways of behaving and standardised outcomes;
Competence model: invisible pedagogies with weaker framing that result in an ostensibly more informal approach where the teacher responds to individual children’s needs, with hidden or unfocused learning outcomes (Bernstein, 1990).
This review found Alexander’s definition of pedagogy was most helpful, wherein teaching ‘is an act while pedagogy is both act and discourse’ (Alexander 2001, p.540).
Pedagogy comprises teachers’ ideas, beliefs, attitudes, knowledge and understanding about the curriculum, the teaching and learning process and their students, and which impact on their ‘teaching practices’, that is, what teachers actually think, do and say in the classroom. Teacher beliefs are contextually based, and Alexander’s definition also encompasses social, cultural and political aspects.
Child Australia defines pedagogy as an encompassing term concerned with what a teacher does to influence learning in others.
'The function or work of teaching: the art or science of teaching, education instructional methods.’ (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR), 2009a, p.42)
‘... the instructional techniques and strategies that allow learning to take place. It refers to the interactive process between teacher/practitioner and learner and it is also applied to include the provision of some aspects of the learning environment (including the concrete learning environment, and the actions of the family and community)’ (Siraj-Blatchford, Sylva, Muttock, Gilden & Bell, 2002, p.10)
‘Pedagogy is about learning, teaching and development influenced by the cultural, social and political values we have for children…in Scotland, and underpinned by a strong theoretical and practical base.’ (Education Scotland, 2005, p.9)
Aims, goals, content, objectives, methods and educational practices employed by society to inculcate certain values aspired by that society (OSABWA WYCLIFFE, 2016, p.18)
There are no acceptable or unacceptable definitive words that can define pedagogy because scholars are skeptic on its description. However, they tend to agree that ‘pedagogy comprises what teachers do in the classroom, but also their ideas, knowledge and attitudes in relation to the learners, the teaching and learning process and the curriculum.
Pedagogy can therefore be said to a set of strategies, resources, activities and skills used by one person to enhance learning of another person.
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Australia, C. (n.d.). Retrieved from Child Australia: https://childaustralia.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/CA-Statement-Pedagogy.pdf
Dr Jo Westbrook, D. N. (2013, December). Education Rigorous Literature Review. Retrieved from University of Sussex: http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/Portals/0/PDF%20reviews%20and%20summaries/Pedagogy%202013%20Westbrook%20report.pdf?ver=2014-04-24-121331-867
Mortimore, C. W. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.chriswatkins.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Watkins-99-Pedagogy-what-mean.pdf
Summarizer, V. O. (n.d.). Retrieved from INDIANA UNIVERSITY BLOOMINGTON: http://medsci.indiana.edu/m620/ppt/pec_lrn_styl.pdf
WYCLIFFE, O. (2016, May). Bitstream. Retrieved from Kenyatta University: http://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/123456789/15084/An%20analysis%20of%20the%20pedagogical%20approaches%20to%20character........pdf?sequence=1
There are a number of factors that can distinguish between the performance of one school from another. One of the fundamental aspects of this is entry behavior i.e. a teacher handling a class of 50 'A' students will not experience the same way as a teacher handling a class of 50 'D' students. The technique, pedagogy and approach that can be used to address the two classes can differ for various reasons. Due to this, the MOEST - The Kenyan Ministry of Education Science and Technology has deviced a better way of appraising teachers than the traditional ranking of schools methods. The MOEST has found it fit to look at VAP rather than astronomical grades.
Value Added Progress means that a teacher should better the grade of a student or at worse maintain it from his/her initial grades we call entry behavior.
Putting this into considerations, this article is not about making and 'E' student to 'A' student rather to improve the grades of your subjects as a teacher. The pedagogical strategies listed below have been used by many schools and proved to be efficient and productive.
1. Cover the syllabus at least 3 months before KCSE/KCPE Examinations
After your students report in form 1, make a plan to cover the syllabus for form 1- form 4 in four and half years so that you can save some time to revisit areas that your students failed to understand and practice extensive revision. Mathematics and Chemistry tend to have a wide burdening syllabus and if you are handling low grade students, the experience to cover the syllabus in time will be a daunting task but with an early plan, it is possible to clear the syllabus by mid of June of every fourth year.
Majority of teachers are reluctant in the first two years only to realise later that they had a task at hand to clear the syllabus, later they all scramble to the form four class. This overworks candidates and any academic content they may be absorbing will be minimal to make any difference. Therefore teachers, syllabus coverage starts as early as form one to create room for soft landing later in form four.
Timely syllabus coverage is the key to the beginning of achieving good grades.
2. Embrace Extensive revision
This factor is dependent on syllabus coverage, this is why syllabus coverage is the key to better grades. There are a number of strategies one can employ to deliver an excellent revision exercise. they include:-
3. Test your students with standard examinations
Quality examinations has the following characteristics:-
4. Encourage your students
Use a lot of encouragement on your students. This motivates and gives your students a psychological headstart that is key in building confidence. Other strategies to apply is reinforcement and empathy.
Most students who are exposed to a lot of talk through counselling and guidance and a good teacher-student relationship tend to realise their weaknesses earlier enough to correct them. Engage your students in dialogue and constructive criticism.
5. Self Sacrifice
The time provided by the ministry is not enough to put your things in order. This calls for self sacrifice. This is an ethical issue. If you let your students understand that you are sacrificing for them, they may change attitude and cooperate more thus, achieving your goals will be easier and quicker.
6. Use diverse textbooks and teaching tools and aids
Use of different books in teaching as a source of reference and other teaching aids is crucial in expansion and clarification of knowledge. This is because students learn better in different methods used, language phrase or expressions used. Diversity can bring a positive impact however if not used well, can also be misleading. It is therefore your work as a teacher to decide and advice which books your students need to acquire.
7. Invite an examiner to talk to your students
Examiners are trained on how examinations are marked. Therefore, they are rich in knowledge of the same. Invite them earlier enough to create room to eliminate errors before D-day.
One can also invite subject elites in the society and technocrats to share their experience with students.
Enhancing group dynamics in a classroom situation is a powerful tool towards the teaching and learning process. This gives the learner an opportunity to interact with other learners which is instrumental in the acquiring of cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects of personality.
Advantages of enhancing group dynamics in a classroom situation
Scope of Guidance and Counselling according to Nasibi (2003) and Six categories of learners with special needs
Nasibi (2003) defines guidance as all the activities rendered by educational institutions which are primarily concerned with assisting individual students understand themselves, that is, their characteristics and potentials.
Nasibi (2003) describes counselling as offering, advising and cautioning students who may have gone astray or are out of control.
According to Nasibi (2003, p. 46), guidance and Counselling is an organized service established as an integral part of the school environment designed to promote the development of the students and assist them towards the realization of sound wholesome adjustment and maximum accomplishments commensurate with their potential. Through these services, an individual achieves greater awareness of his or her potential. Nasibi (2003, p. 52) points out that the role of the counsellor in the school setting is that of a coordinator as they coordinate the resources available in the school and the community to help a child with either psychological or health problems. The counsellor also makes, coordinates, and maintains liaison relationships with referral services. Guidance and Counselling department should also act as a liaison, representative and mediator to help create an effective learning environment. According to Nasibi (2003, p.111), the activities and content of a guidance and counselling programme should cover some of the areas like career talks. She adds that competent professionals should regularly be invited to talk to students in schools on career opportunities, university education requirements for careers, prevailing socio-economic conditions and their effect on career opportunities.
Six categories of learners with special needs
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